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The Raspberry Pi has two LEDs on the front: One hardwired as a power indicator, and the other is (by default) an SD card activity indicator. This second LED can be changed via software to anything (even a GPIO), but for this, I’m going to show you how to set it as a heartbeat indicator.
sudo su modprobe ledtrig_heartbeat echo heartbeat > /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger
The Pi’s led should now start blinking as a heartbeat indicator. If you want to restore the default behavior, you can do so:
echo mmc0 > /sys/class/leds/led0/trigger
That’s all there is to it.
After getting a Raspberry Pi (or Pi 2), here are the first steps you should take:
login with username pi, password raspberry.
Configure the Pi:
- Advanced options
- A0 Update this tool
- Expand filesystem
- Change user password
- Internationalization options:
- Change locale: Add your locale (Removing the default en_GB.UTF-8 caused display issues on mine, so just add your locale.)
- Change Timezone
Next, update the Pi:
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade
Last, update the firmware:
I found that when using KF5INZ Easy-Digi board and DireWolf v1.2 for APRS, you will need to specify both DTR and RTS control in the DireWolf configuration file, or DireWolf will hold PTT down. All other programs seem to work normally. Example configuration line for DireWolf:
PTT COM4 DTR RTS
If you’re planning to operate your ham radio from a mobile installation, it’s important to understand that your vehicle is packed full of sensitive electronics, and some of them, like the ECM and TCM, are vital to your cars operations. The very last thing you want to do is pay for an expensive repair because you got RF into the vehicles electronics and killed something important, or made a sloppy wiring mistake. So, with that in mind, how do you proceed?
Here are a few points:
- If you have a mobile radio, the owners manual will almost certainly recommend connecting it directly to the battery. This is essential to maintain a safe supply of power. Make sure that the leads are of proper gauge wire, and fused at both the positive and negative leads, as close to the battery as possible, using fuses properly rated for your load. It’s been recommended that instead of connecting the negative lead directly to the battery, to instead connect it to where the ground cable from the battery meets the chassis.
- Do not use a fuse tap or add your radio to any existing fused circuit. You will overload the circuit.
- Do not use a cigarette lighter adapter if you will exceed half of the outlet’s rated value, or the outlet’s rated value is unknown. You can overheat the wiring and overload the circuit. (Remember: DC watts is roughly double your RF watt output.)
- Attach the radio’s mounting bracket to a location that has a good chassis ground. Use an ohmmeter to test. If you cannot ground the bracket, then run a grounding strap from your mounting location to the nearest chassis ground point. Avoid Velcro mounting if at all possible. It will not stay attached in the case of a severe accident. Reference your vehicle’s manual to ensure that no components such as microphones or head units are in the airbag deployment area.
- Attach any accessories, such as duplexers or amplifiers, securely. Consider putting all your radio equipment in your trunk and only having the headunit and microphone in your passenger area. Although this involves running more wire, you’ll have plenty of room to secure your components.
- Avoid magnetic mounts on any frequency lower than the 2-meter band. Use an antenna mounting method that provides a good ground, such as a trunk-lip or through-hole. Ensure that whatever mounting method you use supports your antenna well, and check it periodically. Use thread-lock compound on any adjustment screws but NOT on screws that provide a ground, as it will interfere with the ground. If using a trunk mount, check for an included metal plate (stability plate) and ensure that two screws bite into the metal plate (use thread-lock on these) and two cut through to the metal in your trunk lid (do not use thread-lock on these).
- Mount the antenna as high as practically possible, keeping metal under the antenna instead of up against it. Mounting on roofs and trunk lips will work, but not so well on bumpers or against a metal truck bed cover.
- Remember the legal limit in the US is 13’6″ high, and parking garages and drive-through burger joints are often much lower than that (around 10′). If you are going to exceed 9’6″ from the street to the tip of your antenna, be alert when driving and parking, and be sure your antenna is removable without too much hassle.
- Check your SWR after installation. If you are having a difficult time getting a good SWR reading, check the location of your antenna and the ground connection. If you’re having trouble getting a good SWR on 6-meters or below, check to see if your trunk lip (or other body part) has a good ground path to the rest of the vehicle chassis metal. Run flat ground strap as appropriate. The lower the band, the more continuous ground you need. Remember, your ground is your counterpoise.
- Remember the elements, and weatherproof and seal connections as necessary. If you’re using a trunk lip mount, or you’re going through any vehicle weather seal, consider a mount that uses a very thin type of coax (such as RG174) to keep the displacement of weather seals to a minimum. The inside of your vehicle will thank you.
- Don’t operate using more than 100 watts. I’ve heard stories about people operating a kilowatt from their vehicles. Once you consider RF exposure limits, there’s no justification for this. Save it for the base station where you can get your antenna further than 10 feet from your body.
- NMO is the only connector that I am aware of that is waterproof when removed. While “UHF” (PL259/SO239) is a popular connector, and performs well, be aware to avoid moisture leaking into the connector when installing or removing your antenna, and keep a rain cap on the connector when you don’t have an antenna installed. It’s a good idea to seal your connections using coax tape or similar to avoid moisture contamination, even when your antenna is installed.
Remember your physical safety as well as the electrical safety in your vehicle are of the utmost importance. It’s difficult to operate from a hospital bed, and your car insurance won’t cover a vehicle fire from sloppy wiring. Ruining a vehicle over a few hundred bucks of radio equipment is just not worth it.
I have been engaged in conversation with several other hams in regard to Chinese imported transceivers such as Baofengs and Wouxuns. These radios are very inexpensive (usually less than $50 a piece) and readily available from US suppliers via Amazon and eBay. They frequently do not come with an FCC label on them.
The question is, does it matter?
Some hams are of the belief that FCC certification doesn’t matter because they’re used in Amateur Radio, which operates under Part 97 of the rules and does not require certification.
Other hams are of the belief that the transceiver requires at least Part 15 certification since it will receive outside of the amateur band.
So which is correct? Technically, the latter belief is correct. Part 15 certification is required because the device will receive outside of the amateur band. But more importantly, a large part of the Chinese imports do not even meet the emissions standards of FCC Part 97. We should care about Part 15 certification because FCC testing proves the emission standards of the radio, such as harmonics and splatter, and poor emissions can cause harmful interference in other radio bands.
In the November 2015 issue of QST, the ARRL published results of testing Amateur-owned handheld transceivers at various conventions from 2012-2015. This testing was done on attendees’ used radios which were brought to the conventions. Each transceiver was hooked to a calibrated set of test equipment and was tested for emission standards compliance.
While I can’t provide the actual article due to copyrights, I will sum up the findings here. For all brands listed in the article over the entire test period, I’ve provided the total number of radios and the average percent of compliant radios across all years.
- Baofeng: 186 tested. 29% compliant.
- Connect Systems: 13 tested, 100% compliant.
- Icom: 151 tested, 100% compliant.
- Kenwood: 129 tested, 99.5% compliant.
- Motorola: 11 tested, 100% compliant
- RadioShack: 11 tested, 100% compliant.
- TYT: 6 tested, 50% compliant.
- Wouxun: 79 tested, 82.5% compliant.
- Yaesu: 280 tested, 99.8% compliant.
For greater detail of the radios tested and the emissions findings, including spectral graphs of the emissions of a few tested radios, please see the issue of QST I mentioned above.
Comments are welcome.
UPDATE 1-19-2017: Another ham reached out to me about this, mentioning that it may be related to having extra spaces at the end of your callsign if it’s less than 6 characters. I loaded my programming in RT System’s FT-1D Programmer and went to Settings > Radio Menu Settings, then clicked the APRS tab. Here I was able to verify that an extra space does exist in the “My Callsign” field. I’ve decided not to test this further, but it should be trivial for someone to verify whether or not removing this extra space fixes this issue.
I have a Yaesu FT1D that supports APRS messaging. I set the callsign in my radio (via SET:12), and I set my APRS callsign as my callsign with SSID -7 via SET:9>23. (See the FT1D manual here or an explanation about APRS SSIDs here.)
I tried sending a message to CQSRVR and ANSRVR to test, but I never got any replies. I have a low-budget digipeater set up in another room using a laptop and another HT, so I checked the screen. The packets were received, gated, and responses were received and transmitted, but my radio never showed anything under messages.
I installed PocketPacket (iOS App Store) and using SSID -5 for it. I sent a message from my radio to my -5 SSID. It showed up on my iPhone. I replied to that message, addressed to SSID-7, it did not show up on my radio.
A bit frustrated, I sent a message to my callsign without SSID. It showed up on my radio. However, when I replied from my radio, the -7 SSID was appended, and so replies to the -7 SSID wouldn’t show up.
By changing my APRS SSID via SET:9>23 to my callsign only without SSID, I was able to get messaging working as expected.
So, in a nutshell:
Issue: APRS messages are not displayed on the radio when an SSID of non-zero is set via SET menu 9>23.
Steps to reproduce: Set an SSID to your callsign via the above-mentioned settings menu. Transmit an APRS message from another device to your callsign-with-SSID. It is not shown on the radio. Transmit an APRS message from another device to your callsign-without-SSID. It is shown on the radio.
Workaround: Set menu 9>23 to your callsign without SSID.
Expected behavior: When the SSID is set via menu 9>23, messages are shown as addressed to your callsign-with-SSID.
I will be emailing Yaesu regarding this issue and hopefully they can fix it in a firmware update.
Yesterday a friend of mine sent me this text message:
Well, I can’t well ignore that. I reached out to AT&T via Twitter for comment:
Not receiving a response, I decided to do some ballparking on my own. I wanted a rough estimate of the peak usage that VoLTE could use under any circumstances, because, what if it’s true?
So, first thing to note is that under AT&Ts roll-out of VoLTE, they’re introducing HD Voice. HD Voice is also being rolled out on other carriers, some possibly independent of a VoLTE roll-out, but since I’m focusing on bandwidth utilization, that difference is not applicable to this.
Now, for the purposes of VoLTE, there are two codecs in play here. AMR-NB (for narrowband, normal calls), and AMR-WB (for wideband, HD Voice calls) [source]. AMR-WB will naturally have the higher bandwidth utilization of the two.
The AMR-WB codec uses, at peak, a 23.85kbps (kilobits) codec [source]. That’s one-way, making it 47.7kbps peak for both ways. I’ll say 48kbps to add a little overhead. This number is in line with an article at NetworkWorld, which states that VoLTE calls come out to about 30-40kbps at peak. That comes out to 6kBps (kilobytes), both ways, at peak. Roughly speaking. It’s possible for the codec to shift to a lower bandwidth during silences and lower frequency-range conversations, or during network congestion, and that’s important to understand.
So, doing the math on a 15-minute phone call will give you a peak usage of 6kB/sec, 360kB/min, and 5.4MB/15min (1MB=1000kB). That’s absolute peak. All other usage not withstanding, that’s [very] roughly at least 92.5 hours or 5,550 minutes of talking on your 2GB plan.
And that’s if VoLTE calls bill against your data plan.
UPDATE: A reader has sent me the following from Verizon’s website, which specifically mentions HD Voice, but not VoLTE:
HD Voice is available at no additional charge and is included in existing plans.
HD Voice calls are billed as standard voice calls according to your plan. No data charges apply.
Mobile-to-Mobile calls that happen to be HD Voice calls are charged just like traditional Mobile-to-Mobile calls and are billed against your monthly minute allowance according to your plan.
A video call is an HD Voice call combined with real-time video. The voice portion is billed as a standard voice call, according to your plan. The video portion is billed as data, according to your data plan. No data charges apply to video calls transmitted over Wi-Fi.
Note: An average 1-minute video call uses about 6 – 8 MB of data. The actual data consumption of your video call may vary. You can estimate your data usage using our online Data Usage Calculator.
Thoughts on this? Corrections on my math? Please feel free to comment below.